Sare Jahan Se Accha

Category Archive

The following is a list of all entries from the Indian Muslims and Independence category.

I wonder what they are up to now…I am willing to consider this if 1. The babri masjid is rebuilt 2. Gujrat rioters are brought to justice 3. muslim youth in prisons on false terrorist allegations are freed….the list goes on.


NEW DELHI: Reaching out to Muslims ahead of Lok Sabha elections,  BJP on Tuesday asked the community to give it a chance and not go by the “propaganda” spread by Congress while promising to stand for equality and apologize for any “mistake” or “shortcoming” in the past.

“Please note that whenever, wherever if there has been any mistake and shortcoming on our part, I assure you that we will apologize to you by bowing our heads,” said BJP chief  Rajnath Singh while addressing a gathering of Muslims here .

Singh said BJP was not against Muslims and the community should not go by the propaganda against it. He asked them to vote for BJP this time for the sake of the nation.

“Try us once. We don’t come up to your expectations, don’t look at us ever again,” he said at the event “Modi for PM —  Mission 272+ — role of Muslims” here.

The BJP chief asked the Muslim community not to vote for electing a government but for a strong nation where brotherhood and humanity shall prevail.

Talking about the  2002 Gujarat riots, Rajnath Singh said Congress engineered such a propaganda as if Modi had ordered the massacre of all Muslims at that time and is now not even ready to accept the clean chit given to him by the courts.

“Congress is playing vote bank politics to defame Modi and BJP … Try and understand this, they want Muslims to move away from BJP,” he said.

“Now, the court has also given him a clean chit, what else is left against him,” the BJP chief said.

His colleague Arun Jaitley also sought to woo the Muslims, saying BJP does not treat minorities as “instruments of political power” but treated them as equals.

“An organized campaign has gone on for several years to create a fear factor amongst the minorities about the BJP,” he said, adding the party has “no prejudice” against them and appealed them to shun vote bank politics.

He said Muslims should support BJP to help make India a “riot-free country where all citizens including minorities are guaranteed security and treated as co-equals with no discrimination”.

The BJP chief said the Indian Constitution does not provide for reservation on religious lines. “Anyone who is poor should be given reservation, be it Muslims, Christians … and not on religious basis. Why divide people on the basis of religion. There should be equality.”

The party plans to convene at least one thousand such conferences to woo the Muslims and allay their “misconceptions”.

Attacking Congress, Rajnath Singh said its policy has been of divide and rule.

The BJP chief also attacked the Congress for accepting the division of the nation on religious lines which Muslim leaders like Maulana Azad never accepted, saying it was “communal”.

He accused Congress of indulging in riots and cited Rajiv Gandhi’s reported words after Indira Gandhi’s assassination — “When a big tree falls, the earth shakes”.

For BJP, the party chief said, the country’s Constitution is its religion and Hindutva is nothing but a way of life in which the world is a family and it “loves” Muslims.

Singh said Modi has defined secularism as “India first” and called for doing politics of justice and humanity.

He questioned the Congress for trying to project itself as a “messiah” of the minority community and asked what it had done for them since Independence.

Claiming that members of the minority community have been siding with BJP, he said hundreds of Muslims have won on BJP symbol in civic bodies in Gujarat where Muslims have got the highest per capita income in the country. This, he said, has been achieved during the 10-year rule of Modi.

Asking the community not to fall prey to Congress “propaganda of falsehood” that if BJP comes to power there will be riots, Singh cited the example of party ruled states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Goa, where there has been no communal violence.

Jaitley said people earlier used to say that it is a party which will get isolated. But now there is panic among other parties after seeing the success of Modi’s rallies, as there has never been such a situation before polls where BJP has managed such a stronghold.

He said Modi has risen and the crowds are coming together with a message.


Why should a Muslim have to wear his nationalism on his sleeve?

An article in TOI by Najeeb Jung, VC Jamaia Milia Islamia summarizes what’s on every sensible Indian’s mind…

“We owe the young Muslim our trust, due process and the benefit of the doubt — so that when the horror of something like Pune happens, he can spontaneously share the revulsion of his fellow citizens without the insidious taint of guilt by association, writes Najeeb Jung. “. Read on:

Muslim rule in “India”: Myth created by British Christian & Jew Rulers

I read the following eye opening article and thought I will share with the readers here…

The noted Indian scholar and historian, Dr Bishambhar Nath Pande, ranked among the very few Indians and fewer still Hindu historians who tried to be little careful when dealing with the Muslim rule in India that lasted for almost 1000 years. Dr Pande passed away on 1 June 1998 and Impact International of London (July 1998) wrote the following obituary [at the end of the article], which we think sheds some light into some of the myths on Indian history, such as on Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, created by the British with the clear objective of divide and rule:


The Muslim rule in India lasted for almost 1000 years. How come then, asked the British historian Sir Henry Elliot (JEW), that Hindus ‘had not left any account which could enable us to gauge the traumatic impact the Muslim conquest and rule had on them’? Since there was none, Elliot went on to produce his own eight-volume History of India from its own historians (1867). His history claimed Hindus were slain for disputing with ‘Muhammedans’, generally prohibited from worshipping and taking out religious processions, their idols were mutilated, their temples destroyed, they were forced into conversions and marriages, and were killed and massacred by drunk Muslim tyrants.


Thus Sir Henry, and scores of other Empire scholars, went on to produce a synthetic Hindu versus Muslim history of India , and their lies became history. However, the noted Indian scholar and historian, Dr Bishambhar Nath Pande, who passed away in New Delhi on 1 June, ranked among the very few Indians and fewer still Hindu historians who tried to be a little careful when dealing with such history. He knew that this history was ‘originally compiled by European writers’ whose main objective was to produce a history that would serve their policy of divide and rule. Lord Curzon (Governor General of India 1895-99 and Viceroy 1899-1904, d.1925) was told by the Secretary of State for India, George Francis Hamilton, that they ’should so plan the educational text books that the differences between community and community are further strengthened’.


Another Viceroy, Lord Dufferin (1884-88), was advised by the Secretary of State in London that the ‘division of religious feelings is greatly to our advantage’, and that he expected ’some good as a result of your committee of inquiry on Indian education and on teaching material’. ‘We have maintained our power in India by playing-off one part against the other,’ the Secretary of State for India reminded yet another Viceroy, Lord Elgin (1862-63), ‘and we must continue to do so. Do all you can, therefore, to prevent all having a common feeling.’ In his famous Khuda Bakhsh Annual Lecture (1985) Dr Pande said: ‘Thus under a definite policy the Indian history books text-books were so falsified and distorted as to give an impression that the medieval [i.e. Muslim] period of Indian history was full of atrocities committed by Muslim rulers on their Hindu subjects and the Hindus had to suffer terrible indignities under Muslim rule. And there were no common factors [between Hindus and Muslims] in social, political and economic life.’


Therefore, Dr Pande was extra careful. Whenever he came across a ‘fact’ that looked odd to him, he would try to check and verify rather than adopt it uncritically. He came across a history text-book taught in the Anglo-Bengali College , Allahabad which claimed that ‘three thousand Brahmins had committed suicide as Tipu wanted to convert them forcibly into the fold of Islam’. The author was a very famous scholar, Dr Har Prashad Shastri, head of the department of Sanskrit at Calcutta University . (Tipu Sultan (1750-99), who ruled over the South Indian state of Mysore (1782-99), is one of the most heroic figures in Indian history. He died on the battlefield, fighting the British.)


Was it true? Dr Pande wrote immediately to the author and asked him for the source on which he had based this episode in his text-book. After several reminders, Dr Shastri replied that he had taken this information from the Mysore Gazetteer. So Dr Pande requested the Mysore University vice chancellor, Sir Brijendra Nath Seal, to verify for him Dr Shastri’s statement from the Gazetteer. Sir Brijendra referred his letter to Prof Srikantia who was then working on a new edition of the Gazetteer. Srikantia wrote to say that the Gazetteer mentioned no such incident and, as a historian himself, he was certain that nothing like this had taken place. Prof Srikantia added that both the prime minister and the commander-in-chief of Tipu Sultan were themselves Brahmins. He also enclosed a list of 136 Hindu temples which used to receive annual grants from the Sultan’s treasury. It transpired that Shastri had lifted this story from Colonel Miles’ History of Mysore which Miles claimed he had taken from a Persian manuscript in the personal library of Queen Victoria . When Dr Pande checked further, he found that no such manuscript existed in Queen Victoria ’s library. Yet Dr Shastri’s book was being used as a high school history text-book in seven Indian states, Assam , Bengal , Bihar , Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. So he sent his entire correspondence about the book to the vice chancellor of Calcutta University , Sir Ashutosh Chaudhary. Sir Ashutosh promptly ordered Shashtri’s book out of the course. Yet years later, in 1972, Dr Pande was surprised to discover the same suicide story was still being taught as ‘history’ in junior high schools in Uttar Pradesh. The lie had found currency as a fact of history.


The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (born 1618, reigned 1658-1707) is the most reviled of all Muslim rulers in India . He was supposed to be a great destroyer of temples and oppressor of Hindus, and a ‘fundamentalist’ too! As chairman of the Allahabad Municipality (1948-53), Dr Pande had to deal with a land dispute between two temple priests. One of them had filed in evidence some farmans (royal orders) to prove that Aurangzeb had, besides cash, gifted the land in question for the maintenance of his temple. Might they not be fake, Dr Pande thought, in view of Aurangzeb’s fanatically anti-Hindu image? He showed them to his friend, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, a distinguished lawyer as well a great scholar of Arabic and Persian. He was also a Brahmin. Sapru examined the documents and declared they were genuine farmans issued by Aurangzeb.


For Dr Pande this was a ‘new image of Aurangzeb’; so he wrote to the chief priests of the various important temples, all over the country, requesting photocopies of any farman issued by Aurangzeb that they may have in their possession. The response was overwhelming; he got farmans from several principal Hindu and jain temples, even from Sikh Gurudwaras in northern India . These farmans, issued between 1659 and 1685, related to grant of jagir (large parcel of agricultural lands) to support regular maintenance of these places of worship. Dr Pande’s research showed that Aurangzeb was as solicitous of the rights and welfare of his non-Muslim subjects as he was of his Muslim subjects. Hindu plaintiffs received full justice against their Muslims respondents and, if guilty, Muslims were given punishment as necessary.


One of the greatest charges against Aurangzeb is of the demolition of Vishwanath temple in Banaras ( Varanasi ). That was a fact, but Dr Pande unravelled the reason for it. ‘While Aurangzeb was passing near Varanasi on his way to Bengal , the Hindu Rajas in his retinue requested that if the halt was made for a day, their Ranis may go to Varanasi , have a dip in the Ganges and pay their homage to Lord Vishwanath. Aurangzeb readily agreed. ‘Army pickets were posted on the five mile route to Varanasi . The Ranis made journey on the palkis [palanquins]. They took their dip in the Ganges and went to the Vishwanath temple to pay their homage. After offering puja [worship] all the Ranis returned except one, the Maharani of Kutch. A thorough search was made of the temple precincts but the Rani was to be found nowhere. ‘When Aurangzeb came to know of this, he was very much enraged. He sent his senior officers to search for the Rani. Ultimately they found that statue of Ganesh [the elephant-headed god which was fixed in the wall was a moveable one. When the statue was moved, they saw a flight of stairs that led to the basement. To their horror they found the missing Rani dishonoured and crying deprived of all her ornaments.


The basement was just beneath Lord Vishwanath’s seat.’ The Rajas demanded salutary action, and ‘Aurangzeb ordered that as the sacred precincts have been despoiled, Lord Vishwanath may be moved to some other place, the temple be razed to the ground and the Mahant [head priest] be arrested and punished’. (B N Pande, Islam and Indian Culture, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 1987)


Dr Pande believed in the innate goodness of human nature. Despite all that senseless hate and periodical outbreak of anti-Muslim violence after independence, he remained an optimist. When one of the worst riots took place in 1979 in Ahmadabad, in which more than 2,000 Muslims were killed and 6,000 houses burnt, Dr Pande travelled there to see whether there was ‘any humanity still alive’. Yes, it was in one locality, Mewabhai Chaal, where he found that all the houses had been burnt down. Did they all belong to Muslims? No. Only 35 belonged to Muslims; some 125 belonged to Hindus, he was told. So, it meant, the arsonists came in two different waves; one destroying the Muslim houses and the other the Hindu houses? No, it was only one wave, said Kalayan Singh. That one, there, he pointed out to smoke billowing from what used to be his house and his tyre-shop. He was a Hindu and he had lost property and business worth 200,000 rupees. The miscreants had asked him to point out the Muslim houses so they could spare the Hindu houses. Kalyan Singh refused, and watched as the mob set fire to all the houses – including his own. How could I betray my Muslim neighbours? he asked Dr Pande rhetorically.


Dr Pande also went to the Muslim students hostel. One-third of its residents were Hindus. “Come out all you Hindu students,” yelled a murderous mob gathered outside the hostel. No, we won’t, shouted back the Hindu students and locked the gate from inside. In the event, the entire hostel was evacuated by the army and then left to the mob to loot and burn. The Hindu students were told they could take with them their books and research papers. Dr Pande met a young DSc scholar, named Desai, who had left behind his more than three years’ labour, a ready-for-typing dissertation, to be burnt by the arsonists. Desai said he couldn’t think of saving his thesis while some of his Muslim friends were in similar position with their theses. A noble soul! Dr Pande who had been looking for humanity found it there as well.


The inhumanity did not lie in the Indian nature, but the nature had fallen victim to the evil heritage of colonial history. Few realised how 1000 years of their history had been stolen from them. Many tended to buy the fake and doctored version handed down to them as part of their colonial heritage. Some even saw a little political advantage in this trade. Dr Pande heard a leading Hindu Mahasabha politician and religious leader, Mahant Digvijaynath, telling an election meeting that it is written in the Qur’an that killing a Hindu was an act of goodness (thawab). Dr Pande called upon the Mahant (High Priest) and told him that he had read the Qur’an a few times but didn’t find such a statement in it, and he had, therefore, brought with him several English, Urdu and Hindi translations of the Qur’an; so would he kindly point to him where exactly did the statement occur in the Qur’an? Isn’t it written there? said the Mahant. I haven’t found it; if you have, please tell me, replied Dr Pande. Then what does it say? It speaks about love and brotherhood, about the oneness of mankind. What’s jihad then? What is jizyah? How then India got partitioned? The Mahant went on asking, and Dr Pande kept on explaining, hoping the Mahant would correct himself. However, the Mahant’s ideas were fixed, in prejudice and in ignorance.


Dr Pande himself had been a senior member of the ruling Congress party which he had joined at a very young age. He was a disciple of Gandhi, a friend of Nehru; he had taken part in each and every non-cooperation movement against the British and gone to jail eight times. The Congress was supposed to be an all-Indian nationalist platform and yet Dr Pande’s party was hardly free from the bias and ignorance of a cleverly deconstructed history. The rise of militant Hindutva tendency is only recent, but before it all became overt, the Congress itself was doing the same, albeit a little covertly.


All the horrific anti-Muslim carnage took place during more than four decades of Congress rule. The doors of the Babari Mosque were opened for Hindu worship during the tenure of Nehru’s grandson, Rajiv Gandhi. The Mosque itself was pulled down during the regime of another Congress Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao. Dr Pande was, however, just one individual. That made his work all the more important, not just from the Muslim but from the point of view of the entire country. India ’s deconstructed history is like a time bomb; unless it is defused, India cannot survive in one piece. Not for very long.


Bishambhar Nath Pande born on 23 December 1906 in the Madhya Pradesh of Umreth; member UP Legislative Assembly (1952-53); member UP Legislative Council (1972-74); twice member of the upper house, Rajya Sabha (1976 and 1982); Governor of Orissa state (1983-88); recipient of the highest national award Padma Shri (1976); author of several books, including The Spirit of India and The Concise History of Congress; died in New Delhi, 1 June 1998.


THE MUSLIM RULE IN INDIA by M H Faruqi. Courtesy: Impact International, London , Vol 28, July 1998 “Every civil building connected with Mahommedan tradition should be levelled to the ground without regard to antiquarian veneration or artistic predilection.” British Prime Minister Palmerston’s Letter No. 9 dated 9 October 1857 , to Lord Canning, Viceroy of India, Canning Papers. Posted in History, S. Asia History Tagged: Muslim rule in “ India ”: Myth and reality

Eid Mubarak!

A very happy Eid to everyone


6 million meals and project REED

Indian Muslim Relief and Charities has two important projects that they are raising funds for during this month of Ramadan – 1. six million meals for the poor in India 2. Rural Education and Economic Development (REED). Please find more information on their website

I grew up in India, and I have seen the dire situation and the extreme poverty with my own eyes. Millions go hungry for days, even those that get a meal a day eat a piece of bread and few spoons of lentils or rice… the 6 million meals program is to provide 6 million meals to these very hungry during the month of Ramadan

Many place in India, even today lack basic infrastructure, drinking water, sanitation, hospital and schools. The problem is actue in rural areas in the coastal andhra pradesh… this is where IMRC is building schools and hospitals and working towards creating employment opportunities for the poor…this is project REED

I hope more people come forward to support project like these.

India Candlelit Vigils

Last week an attack on Mumbai resulted in some 200 innocent lives lost, we held a Candlelit Vigil at Microsoft:

Also, I got a chance to say a few words at this vigil and at an interfaith gathering at the Sammamish Vedic Temple, following is what I said:

In the name of god, the most gracious, the most merciful

We’re all feeling the shock of the awful attacks in Mumbai. All our hearts go out to the victims and their families. We are gathered here irrespective of religion, race, and origins to honor their memory.

It was indeed a sad day for India and a sad day for us, the Indian Americans, as well.  A dastardly act of terrorism has been carried out in Mumbai claiming precious innocent lives. Let us join together in condemning these brutal inhuman acts. With profound sorrow, I pay my respect to those who have succumbed to these random acts of violence and I salute those who laid their lives defending others.

The attacks were aimed at our beloved homeland, India, its prosperity and its peace. But their top target was something else: The unity, pluralist and tolerant ethos of India. They know that hatred and chaos feed on division. Let’s deny them that victory. By coming together here, we are sending a message to extremists that their tactics aren’t working, that we’re more united than ever, united in our love and support to each other, and determined to work together to stop violent extremism.

As a Muslim of Indian origin, I am proud of Indian muslims who have never given in or aligned with global terrorism. Some 150 million Muslims live in India and have lived there for generations. They have shaped its culture and customs and have beautified it with wonders like the Taj Mahal. They have fought for its independence and heroes like Tipu Sultan, Ashfaq UllahKhan Shaheed, Mahmood ul Hasan, Khan Abdul Ghffar Khan and Moulana Azad dedicated their lives to its freedom. They will live there side by side with their hindu and Christian friends, for generations to come, with their customs, traditions, festivals, their religion and their mosques.

As a muslim and a human being I denounce this act of terrorism and extend my deepest condolences to those families who lost their loved ones. I hope that India as a country does what it takes to safeguard its citizens and ensures the security and establishes rule of law from Kashimir to kaniyakumari and from Gujarat to Orissa.

Indian Muslims and Sachar Committee Report – Dr. Zafar Mahmood

Dr. Zafar Mahmood, who is one of the members of the Prime Ministers Sacahar Committee, addressed a group of Microsofties in Redmond, following is a video recording of his talk in 6 parts

Also, you can hear is short interview on NPR from:

just fast forward to about 14mts into the program.

The Muslim stagnation – By Kancha Ilaiah

Interesting article I came across, worth a read 

The Muslim stagnation
By Kancha Ilaiah
Deccan Herald
Friday, February 16, 2007

The Muslim backwardness is related to lack of modernist communitarian cultural institutions.

Justice Sachar Commission’s report on Muslims has opened up a new chapter of debate in India both around the question of the minority rights and also reservations. Muslims as a community carried a psychological framework that they belonged to the ruling community for a long time.

Though a mild form of caste structure existed among the Muslims as they converted from the fold of Hindu caste social order a Muslim who became rich could climb the social ladder to become anything within the Indian Muslim civil society. They have equal rights in the mosque; from that position the other ladders were/are available to them. Though the rich Muslims, who came from Patthan or Khan background played
dominant role in many walks of Muslim life, the spiritual equality within the Islamic Social Order has changed many shades of their life over a period of centuries.

Now after 60 years of Independence the Muslim community remains more backward than sections of SC, ST and OBCs. Historically, the Muslim population evolved through conversions from the fold of Dalit-Bahujan communities of India. The Islamic religion expanded in the Indian sub-continent mainly because of Hindu caste system. Apart from three independent nations like Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh, which ot formed because of mass exodus into Islam from the native people itself the ratio of Muslim population in the Indian Republic has been
steadily increasing. This increase is not just because of one man having more wives or because of even the monogamian Muslim families creating unlimited children. For the sake of social dignity and spiritual equality willing conversions of Indian lower castes into Islam keep on taking place. willing conversion of the Meenakshipuram Dalits in Tamil Nadu is not an isolated event. Many individuals keep moving into it in many parts of the country for attaining social status.

As the levels of their poverty started growing, their educational and employment opportunities began to decline and the willing conversions wed down enormously. Two systemic things diverted the attention of lower castes-particularly that of Dalits-Reservations and English education. As it is a known fact that Islam is not an avowedly evangelical religion like Christianity and Navayana Buddhism. It is a religion that accepts if people make effort on their own to get into it. 

The emergence of the Dalit middle class through reservations and English education (both through church means and university based higher education) increased the aspirations among the Dalit, OBC communities. Since reservation has been tied up to the Hindu religion based caste system, of late not many people think of moving into Islam. Secondly, Islam has no modernist educational agenda around its mosque system as Christianity has.Modernist education in Indian context means English and learning of science and arts. Urdu as a language could not develop to meet the challenges of modern market system. Large number of Muslims were confined to Madarsa and Government school education without letting them to develop the aspiration of English education. The English educated and modernised Muslims control the minority educational institutions only to make money by selling the education to rich and upper castes of India.

A small section of anglicised Muslims have emerged as global players but they do not have any sense of community. Individuals like M F Hussain, Salman Rashidi, Sania Mirza, many Khans in film industry have emerged out of English education. In fact in many spheres Anglicised Muslims represent India. If M F Hussain is the tallest painter of India Salman Rashidi is the tallest writer and Sania Mirza is the tallest
Indian woman tennis player.

In industrial sector Wipro’s owner Ajim Premji is one of the richest of India. There are handful of Muslim academic intellectuals who are known in their fields. But they never addressed their school education system. Till now they did not realise what reservation has done to Dalits and tribals. The Muslim backwardness while being systemic, it is also related to lack of modernist communitarian cultural
institutions getting built outside the realm of state.

This is where Christians, who constitute a small minority made a different impact. The church now represents English education, quality medical treatment and setting up world class training centres in different cities of India. It is not just Western dollar, pound money that alone was responsible for building such institutions. Religion should also build a culture of building public utility systems by updating the institutional knowledge each time. Like Hinduism Indian Islam also failed in updating itself to modernity levels.

Not that the Indian state has not failed them. It did in different ways. Ever since the Indian nationalism was defined in terms of Hindu nationalism, the Muslim population had taken all the beatings. But that applies to Christians also. What makes the Indian Muslims and Indian Christians look different is English education. So the Muslim question is closely linked up to not only state policy, but it is also
related to the Muslim community getting into reformative educational ethic, religiously, culturally and economically getting modernised.

The Masjid needs to take up a massive community modernisation drive. We all must know for certain that the State can do only certain things. But religious and cultural institutions play their own autonomous role in developing social communities. The Muslim community needs to address this question quite seriously.

Copyright 2005, The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd.

Sachahr Committee Report

I have uploaded the report here , this should hopefully be faster download than the other location below

The Sachar Committee Report

The sachar committee published their report about the status of Indian Muslims, for a full text full report of the Sachar committee.

It is disheartning to see the discrimination Indian Muslims face. Following are some of the highlights from the report:

  • Muslims live with an inferiority complex as “every bearded man is considered an ISI agent”

  • Social boycott of Muslims in certain parts of the country has forced them to migrate from places where they lived for centuries

  • A community specific factor for low educational achievement is that Muslims do not see education as necessarily translating into formal employment

  • Schools beyond the primary level are few in Muslim localities

  • The “communal” content of school textbooks, as well as, the school ethos has been a major cause for concern for Muslims

  • While the education system appears to have given up on Muslim girls, the girls themselves have not given up on education

  • Displacement from traditional occupations has contributed to Muslims being deprived of their means of livelihood

  • many banks have designated a number of Muslim concentration areas as ‘negative or red zones’, where they do not give loans

  • It is common to find names of Muslims missing in the voter lists of a number of states

  • the recent intercensal decade,1991-2001, has shown a decline in the growth rate of Muslims in most of the states

  • A significantly larger proportion of Muslim workers are engaged in small proprietary enterprises and their participation in formal sector employment is significantly less than the national average

  • RBI’s efforts to extend banking and credit facilities under the Prime Minister’s 15-point programme has mainly benefited other minorities, marginalizing Muslims

  • While there is considerable variation in the conditions of Muslims across states, the Community exhibits deficits and deprivation in practically all dimensions of development